First, find out what isn't true…

December 16, 2010

Israel has no fixed borders? On May 22 1948 Israel confirmed it’s borders in a letter to the UNSC. The Hasbara does not explain, it justifies the usurping of the Palestinians

…It’s actually quite simple. If it isn’t the actual Sovereign Territory of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt or Israel, then by default it is the territory of what remained of Palestine on May 15th 1948. Non-self Governing Territories fall under the protection of the UN Charter Chapt XI…


How many times have you heard the notion that Israel has no borders with Palestine? According to the Provisional Israeli Government’s May 15th 1948 plea for recognition, the State of Israel was declared

“within frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution of November 29, 1947,”

Israel was immediately recognized as such by the US followed by Russia and; recognized as such by the majority of the International Community of Nations before being accepted into the UN and; the extent of Israel’s sovereignty was confirmed by the Israeli Government in a statement to the UNSC on 22nd May 1948, before Israel was accepted into the UN as declared and recognized, before the Armistice Agreements and; before Israel made the first claims to territories the Israeli Government stated (n 22nd May ’48) were “outside the territory of the State of Israel”.

On May 15th 1948 the extent of Israel’s Sovereign territories were clearly defined in the Israeli Government’s official plea for recognition to the President of the USA.

May 15, 1948 Letter From the Agent of the Provisional Government of Israel to the President of the United States, “MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: I have the honor to notify you that the state of Israel has been proclaimed as an independent republic within frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution of November 29, 1947, and that a provisional government has been charged to assume the rights and duties of government for preserving law and order within the boundaries of Israel, for defending the state against external aggression, and for discharging the obligations of Israel to the other nations of the world in accordance with international law. The Act of Independence will become effective at one minute after six o’clock on the evening of 14 May 1948, Washington time.”

The US immediately recognized Israel as such. No more, no less. The British also recognized Israel as such and considered non-declared territories under Israel’s control by the time of British recognition, as occupied.

On May 22nd 1948 the extent of Israel’s Sovereign territories were clearly stated again in the Israeli Government’s Reply to the UNSC.

May 22, 1948 The reply of the Provisional Government of Israel UNSC S/766 to the questions addressed to the “Jewish authorities in Palestine” was transmitted by the acting representative of Israel at the United Nations on May 22.

“at present over the entire area of the Jewish State as defined in the Resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947. In addition, the Provisional Government exercises control over the city of Jaffa; Northwestern Galilee, including Acre, Zib, Base, and the Jewish settlements up to the Lebanese frontier; a strip of territory alongside the road from Hilda to Jerusalem; almost all of new Jerusalem; and of the Jewish quarter within the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. The above areas, outside the territory of the State of Israel, are under the control of the military authorities of the State of Israel, who are strictly adhering to international regulations in this regard [1]. The Southern Negev is uninhabited desert over which no effective authority has ever existed.”

The Israeli Govt goes on to use these phrases in the document:

“the Government of the State of Israel operates in parts of Palestine outside the territory of the State of Israel” — “outside the area of the State” — “beyond the frontiers of the State of Israel”

Four instances where the Israeli Government, after having declared and been recognized, acknowledged limits to it’s territory. aka Borders, delineating the state of Israel from Palestine!

On 12 Aug 1948 an Israeli Government Proclamation says Jerusalem was “occupied”.

Jerusalem Declared Israel-Occupied City- by Israeli Government Proclamation 12 Aug 1948.


[1] “international regulations” at the time say;

Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 Art. 42 SECTION III
“Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. “

On June 15, 1949, Israel’s position on its frontiers, statement to the Knesset by Foreign Minister Sharett.

June 15, 1949 Israel-s position on its frontiers VOLUMES 1-2: 1947-1974
“As for the frontier between the State of Israel and the area west of the Jordan which is not included in Israel…”

ShortLink to this section
On the 31st Aug 1949 Israel made it’s first official claim to territories beyond the extent of its sovereign frontiers. After accepting UNGA resolution without registering any reservations. After declaring Israel Independent of any other entity including Palestine, per the borders of UNGA Res 181 and; enshrining UNGA Resolution in the Declaration. After being recognized as asked & declared. After confirming what was “outside the territory of the State of Israel” to the UNSC and by proclamation declaring Jerusalem “Israeli-Occupied”. After being accepted into the UN, as recognized and based on the Israeli Government statements to the UNSC prior to the UNSC recommendation. Israel’s claim was rebuffed, citing the Armistice Agreements, specifically the Armistice Demarcation Line is not to “be construed in any sense as a political or territorial boundary”.

UN Charter

Chapt XI DECLARATION REGARDING NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES . Israeli Declaration “Israel…will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations May 14th 1948.

Under the UN charter, the acquisition of territory by war is inadmissible. The only manner in which territory can be acquired is by legal annexation. Israel has never legally annexed any territory

Consecutive Israeli Governments have been LYING to it’s own citizens and the world for 62 years.

Contrary to the opinions on why the British took so long to recognize Israel, the British waited until an Israeli Government was elected and waited until Israel was accepted into the UN as Declared and as recognized by the majority of Nations. The British also took into consideration the statements by the Israeli Government, granting de jure recognition of State and elected Government, with conditions.

ISRAEL (GOVERNMENT DECISION) HC Deb 27 April 1950 vol 474 cc1137-41 “His Majesty’s Government have also decided to accord de jure recognition to the State of Israel, subject to explanations on two points corresponding to those described above in regard to the case of Jordan. These points are as follows. First, that His Majesty’s Government are unable to recognise the sovereignty of Israel over that part of Jerusalem which she occupies, though, pending a final determination of the status of the area, they recognise that Israel exercises de facto authority in it. Secondly, that His Majesty’s Government cannot regard the present boundaries between Israel, and Egypt, Jordan, Syria and the Lebanon as constituting the definitive frontiers of Israel, as these boundaries were laid 1139 down in the Armistice Agreements concluded severally between Israel and each of these States, and are subject to any modifications which may be agreed upon under the terms of those Agreements, or of any final settlements which may replace them.”

Nothing has yet replaced them. Israel has never legally annexed any territory to the “frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution of November 29, 1947”. It’s two attempts at annexation were condemned by UNSC Res 252 (+ 5 reminders) and UNSC Res 497, the Golan.


These territories, “outside the territory of the State of Israel”, acquired by war, confirmed by the Israeli Government as occupied and never legally annexed to Israel, are quite simply not sovereign to Israel. As Professor Stephen M. Schwebel, after leaving office as a Judge of International Court of Justice, explains (citing Elihu Lauterpacht), a sovereign can ‘restore’ it’s own sovereign territory by war. It cannot ‘acquire’ territory by war.

Israel has never had to ‘restore’ any sovereign territory, it has never had any sovereign Israeli territory taken from it. In fact, failing to reach a peaceful settlement under Chapt VI of the UN Charter, Syria has a right to ‘restore’ the Golan by war. Likewise Egypt had the same right over the Sinai.

Detailed Partition Map.
Overlay for Google Earth with borders marked according to text of UNGA Res 181 (included)
1947 Partition Google Earth Overlay


  1. eastern promises

    Israel has no fixed borders? On May 22 1948 Israel confirmed it’s borders in a letter to the UNSC. The Hasbara does not explain, it justifies the usurping of the Palestinians | First, find out what isn’t true…

    Trackback by eastern promises — October 15, 2014 @ 7:50 am

  2. I do agree that Israel has no political, nonetheless, legal standing in borders exceeding that of resolution 181. Although, in 1988 when the PNC met, they recognized, and ceded the territory to Israel (not any of West Bank or Gaza).

    Comment by Name — December 6, 2011 @ 4:35 am

    • “in 1988 when the PNC met, they recognized, and ceded the territory to Israel (not any of West Bank or Gaza).”

      Interesting. Can you cite a document, signatories and; the date Israel legally annexed those territories? Thx

      Comment by talknic — December 10, 2011 @ 3:15 am

      • Ah, you’re are correct, Israel has never legally annexed those territories. Thanks for informing me, I had never thought of it that way.

        Comment by Khalil — December 11, 2011 @ 7:57 am

        • 1st .. Apologies for being a bit terse in my reply.
          2nd ..Yes, I have searched for years to find any indication that Israel has actually legally annexed any of the territories it claimed after any of the wars. There are none.

          It is a little complex, so bear with me here. There are numerous UNSC resolutions against Israel for it’s annexation of East Jerusalem and the Golan. UNSC Resolution 252 (1968) of 21 May 1968 UNSC Resolution 267 (1969) of 3 July 1969 UNSC Resolution 271 (1969) of 15 September 1969, UNSC Resolution 298 (1971) of 25 September 1971, UNSC Resolution 465 (1980) of 1 March 1980, UNSC Resolution 476 (1980) of 30 June 1980. … Golan UNSC Res 497.

          These were made after Israel became a UN Member State. Israel is not mentioned at all in any UNSC resolution until after it became a UN Member State because the UNSC cannot pass a resolution directly against Non-Members. Like a football club, it can only tell it’s members how they can or cannot behave towards non-members. It’s also the reason there are no UNSC resolutions directly against Palestine, not because the UN is biased towards Palestine or against Israel. BTW most UN/UNSC resolutions against Israel are actually reminders. If you don’t pay your bills, the gas company reminders aren’t bias, they’re just trying to collect whatever is outstanding.

          Israel made its first claim to territory on the 31st Aug 1949 , after the Armistice Agreements had been signed. Israel’s claim was rebuffed , citing the Armistice Agreements. (full time line on Israel’s legal borders here)

          Israel made no attempts to legally annex the territories it captured in the 1948 war because:
          A) The Israeli Government had already stated they were “beyond the frontiers of the State of Israel” on the 22nd May 1948 to the UNSC and;
          B) it had already been rebuffed. If Israel had attempted to annex without a referendum of the legitimate citizens of the territories it had captured, it would have been condemned by the UNSC, as it was for the illegal annexation of East Jerusalem and the Golan. Customary International Law requires a referendum of the legitimate citizens of any territory to consent to being annexed. (See US annexation of Hawaii, Texas)

          For over 62 years Israelis have been living in territory captured by Israel, but not yet legally recognized as Israeli. Now, as Palestine nears statehood and eventual acceptance into the UN, Israel with all it’s preconditions of keeping illegal settlements, is desperate to negotiate a deal/agreement with the Palestinians which will circumvent the laws surrounding the legal acquisition of territory. Without an agreement between Israel and the Palestinians, the legal landscape will not change. Israel will still be in breach of the law and it’s borders will legally remain those of May 15th 1948, as recognized.

          Under such a situation, the legal and financial ramifications are immense and totally in favour of the Palestinians.

          If there is a deal reached, Israel will still need annex and in order to do so legally, it must still conduct a referendum.

          Which ever way it goes, one state or two state, it will not be easy. I sincerely believe that to ease the pain on both people’s, they must be intelligently informed. 62 years of Israeli Govt bullsh*te is enough

          Take care

          Comment by talknic — December 12, 2011 @ 1:17 pm

          • Have you considered using the information you’ve presented here to try and modify the Wikipedia-like article at Wikispooks entitled “Borders of Israel”? The current article appears to be garbage, lifted from Wikipedia and badly modified to be not meaningful. It looks as if you have to request an editor status but they’re probably desperate for the help of well-informed people like yourself.

            Comment by William Smart — March 28, 2012 @ 4:21 pm

            • Hi WIlliam,

              Wikipedia is A) not governed by facts, it’s governed by second/third hand opinion B )WikIPedia is infested with Hasbara fans determined to keep facts out of the IP issue. Read the talk pages.

              The first line of Israel’s Borders in Wiki is pure Hasbara BULLSH*TE. Israel agreed in the Armistice AGREEMENTS. The Armistice Demarcation lines changed. Borders didn’t.

              Anyone can edit. I am currently banned from the IP issue in Wikipedia. Banning is their bottom line, so too in the Guardian and anywhere else they can, banning and propaganda BS. Silence all who oppose a Greater Israel…

              Comment by talknic — March 28, 2012 @ 10:59 pm

  3. What’s this Palestine country that you talk about? And weren’t the “Palestinians” already given a land, now called Jordan?

    Comment by Mo — August 22, 2011 @ 7:47 am

    • “What’s this Palestine country that you talk about?”

      You haven’t read the Declaration for the Establishment of the State of Israel? That’s AMAZING Mo!!!

      According to the ISRAELI Government website, the Declaration for the Establishment of the State of Israel says this in the FIRST line of the text; “ERETZ-ISRAEL [(Hebrew) – the Land of Israel, Palestine]”

      For over 2,000 years, from the Roman era til 1946, the region was officially named, Palestine

      ALL it’s citizens were Palestinians. Even Jewish folk in the region were Palestinian citizens. In fact, the longer part of Jewish history in the region was as Palestinian Jews. Longer than the Jewish Kingdom existed. Longer than our Jewish State has existed.

      To deny the existence of the Palestinians is to deny the longer part of our Jewish history in the region.

      The League of Nations Covenant (1920 Article 22 paragraph 4 ), acknowledged Palestine as a “Provisional State”. 1920 was BEFORE the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine was written (1920). , Note the official name Mandate for PALESTINE. In the FIRST line it says: “Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have agreed, for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations”. Confirming Palestine’s existing status as a Provisional State.

      Article 7 of the LoN Mandate for PALESTINE says this: The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for enacting a nationality law. There shall be included in this law provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their permanent residence in Palestine.

      After Jordan was declared independent of the Provisional State of Palestine, what remained of Palestine.was still called Palestine. What remained of the Provisional State of Palestine after Israel was declared independent of the Provisional State of Palestine is still called the Palestine

      The Provisional State of Palestine is a “non-self governing territory”, protected under the UN Charter Chapt XI, under which Israel, as the “Occupying Power” (UNSC Res 446), is obliged to protect the occupied, their property and their territory.

      The UNSC Resolutions on the matter call for peace ” in Palestine”, (not ‘in Israel’)

      I know, I know, you are more knowledgeable than the UNSC or the Israeli Government,. Right?

      The OFFICIAL documents are wrong. Right?

      “.. weren’t the “Palestinians” already given a land, now called Jordan?”

      LOL Oh my AMAZING Mo, you really do excel at stupidity. Unless they immigrate (Palestine refugees in Jordan are not immigrants), only the people who lived in the area that became Jordan had a right to permanent citizenship of Jordan. ALL of Jordan’s citizens are Jordanian. Every one of them. People outside of the area that became Jordan did not have any right to Jordanian citizenship. They are not Jordanian.

      If (as you say) people outside of an area which becomes an Independent State have a right to be citizens of that state, then Palestinians who were outside of the area that became Israel have a right to be Israeli citizens. Which kind of makes you and your notion, look thoroughly idiotic.

      Perhaps you should also read the Israeli/Jordanian Armistice AGREEMENTS and Peace Treaty in order to see what Israel AGREED to with Jordan. I have no doubt you won’t & you’ll ignore the above and instead run off somewhere else to perpetuate your brilliant ignorance. So I’ll thank you now for the opportunity to show other folk just how stupid you and your pathetic notions are. Thanks AMAZING Mo :-) Please come again.

      Comment by talknic — August 22, 2011 @ 9:32 pm

  4. An obvious antisemitic article! When a country or countries start a war, and lose, their lands may become lost to the victor. In this case, it has always been the Arabs who have attacked Israel and have lost territory. Does anyone remember what happened after both world wars? Lands were taken away and completely reorganized, in particular the Ottoman Empire which included Israel/Palestine was completely rejiggered. I’d say the borders of Israel should be those that God gave them in an everlasting covenant!

    Comment by Grant Thomas — May 22, 2011 @ 1:46 pm

    • It was Israel who started the infamous 1967 6-Day War by attacking Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Google “Operation Focus” for more info. Israel was not attacked and had no legal right to confiscate land that didn’t belong to it.

      Comment by E.Z. Dozit — May 23, 2011 @ 4:22 am

      • you are so ignorant,i refuse futher comment

        Comment by jerry sweet — June 16, 2012 @ 3:49 pm

        • jerry,

          if he was “so ignorant” you should have no problem showing how ignorant he is. Perhaps with some factual material? But instead you’re running away? Readers will be so disappointed ….

          Comment by talknic — June 17, 2012 @ 3:31 am

        • The June 1967 War was started by Israel:
          At 7:45 AM on 5 June 1967, Israel attacked Egypt and thereby, Jordan and Syria who each shared a mutual defense pact with Egypt. The attack took place just hours before Egypt’s VP Mohieddine was to fly to Washington for a prearranged June 7th meeting with the Johnson administration to defuse the crisis between Egypt and Israel based on an agreement worked out in Cairo between Nasser and Johnson’s envoy, Robert Anderson. In a cable sent to Johnson on May 30, Israel’s PM Eshkol promised not to attack Egypt until June 11 to give diplomacy a chance to succeed. However, on June 4, when it heard about the June 7th meeting and the distinct possibility that it would rule out war, Israel’s cabinet ordered its armed forces to attack Egypt the next day. In short, the war was another massive land grab by Israel.

          Prime Minister Menachem Begin, former Minister without portfolio in PM Levi Eshkol’s cabinet, while addressing Israel’s National Defence College on 8 August 1982: “In June, 1967, we again had a choice. The Egyptian army concentrations in the Sinai did not prove that Nasser was really about to attack us. We must be honest with ourselves. We decided to attack him.” (New York Times, 21 August 1982)

          Meir Amit, chief of Israel’s Mossad: “Egypt was not ready for a war and Nasser did not want a war.”

          Israeli Chief of Staff Rabin: “I do not believe that Nasser wanted war. The two divisions which he sent into Sinai on 14 May would not have been enough to unleash an offensive against Israel. He knew it and we knew it.” (Le Monde, 25 February, 1968)

          Prime Minister Eshkol: “The Egyptian layout in the Sinai and the general military buildup there testified to a military defensive Egyptian set-up south of Israel.” (Yediot Aharonot, l8 October 1967)
          Robert McNamara, U.S. Secretary of Defence: “Three separate intelligence groups had looked carefully into the matter [and] it was our best judgment that a UAR attack was not imminent.” (The Vantage Point, Lyndon Johnson, p. 293)

          An article published in the New York Times (4 June 1967) just hours before Israel attacked notes that Major General Indar Jit Rikhye, Commander of UNEF in the Middle East, “who toured the Egyptian front, confirms that Egyptian troops were not poised for an offensive.”

          On May 26, in reply to Israel’s Foreign Minister Abba Eban’s assertion that according to Israeli intelligence, “an Egyptian and Syrian attack is imminent,” Secretary of State Dean Rusk dismissed the claim and assured Eban that Israel faced no threat of attack from Egypt. On the same day, during a meeting at the Pentagon, Eban was also told by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and his aides that “…Egyptian forces were not in an aggressive posture and that Israel was not opening itself to peril by not attacking immediately. The contrary was true, Eban was told.” (Donald Neff, Warriors for Jerusalem, pp. 140-41)

          As the UN Emergency Force (UNEF) Commander, Major General Idar Jit Rikhye, revealed, Nasser was not enforcing the blockade of the Tiran straits: “[The Egyptian] navy had searched a couple of ships after the establishment of the blockade and thereafter relaxed its implementation.”

          According to Patrick Seale, highly regarded historian and journalist, Israel had been meticulously preparing for another war against the Arabs since its 1956 invasion of Egypt: “In the decade since the Suez campaign Israel had built up forces that could move fast and hit hard: mobile armoured units able to cover long distances, mechanized infantry, heliborne and naval paratroopers for use behind enemy lines, and above all an air force of Mirage and Super-Mystere interceptors and Mystere fighter-bombers of unchallenged superiority. The main lesson Israel had learned from the [1956] Suez war was the importance of air dominance not only to neutralize Arab air forces but also for use as flying artillery against infantry and tanks.” (Patrick Seale, Asad…, p. 117)

          Ezer Weizman, former commander of Israel’s Air Force confirmed in his memoirs that Israel spent years meticulously planning the attack against Egypt: “For five years I had been talking of this operation, explaining it, hatching it, dreaming of it, manufacturing it link by link, training men to carry it out.” Recalling how he felt at 7:30 A.M. on 5 June 1967, Weizman wrote: “Now in a quarter of an hour, we would know if it was only a dream or whether it would come true….” (Donald Neff, Warriors for Jerusalem…, p. 202)

          Comment by David — August 25, 2018 @ 6:21 pm

    • Hi there Grant,

      “Antisemitic”? Making a false accusation is against the tenets of Judaism. What Antisemitic? Quote….thx

      “When a country or countries start a war” The preemptor starts preemptive war. Israel preempted every war.

      “and lose, their lands may become lost to the victor” It is inadmissible to ‘acquire’ territory by war. ANY war. The UN Charter shows no exemptions. Oh .. and and then read the Israeli/Egyptian Peace Agreement, where Israel was required to withdraw from all Egyptian territory BEFORE peaceful relations resumed.

      “world wars” What happened after both world wars? The US and Russia kept Germany? Nope. The US kept Japan? Nope. The US didn’t even keep Texas in the 1800’s until it LEGALLY annexed through a referendum of the Mexican citizens of the territories being annexed. Under Customary International Law since at least the mid 1800’s, territory must be legally annexed, via a referendum, even if taken by war. ANY war.

      “Lands were taken away and completely reorganized, in particular the Ottoman Empire which included Israel/Palestine” Palestine was a Class A mandate. I.e., a provisional state. Meanwhile, Israel didn’t exist until 1948 15th May to be precise, when it was declared independent of Palestine. The greater part of Jewish history in the region has actually been as Palestinian Jews. (facts and maths)

      “God”? The same God who was AWOL during the Holocaust? Who didn’t know about Australia, America, China, Russia, the North or South Poles etc etc? Who only gave land to a small band of people, at a politically expedient time, (when they were lost in the desert)? Land they had to conquer from the people already there? (before the League of Nations and the then the UN forbade the acquisition of territory by war)

      All you brought was empty rhetoric, not actually contesting anything. Try harder Grant.

      Comment by talknic — May 23, 2011 @ 4:56 am

    • Quote the alleged antisemitism Grant ….thx

      BTW can you show readers a UNSC resolution condemning the Arab states for attacking Israel? The Israeli Govt says they invaded Palestine

      The State of Israel can’t be an independent sovereign state AND be in a non-self-governing territory such as Palestine. This was confirmed by the Israeli Govt May 22nd 1948. Israel recognized Palestine was “outside the territory of the State of Israel”

      “the Ottoman Empire which included Israel/Palestine”

      Uh, Israel didn’t exist until it was declared. In fact the name “Israel” wasn’t even decided until moments before it was declared

      “I’d say the borders of Israel should be those that God gave them in an everlasting covenant!”

      Uh huh… I’m guessing you’ll say anything, no matter how illogical.

      When you provide references, actual legal documents and evidence for your stupid accusations, I’ll put ’em up. Til then your nonsense will be saved …. under trash

      Comment by talknic — June 17, 2012 @ 3:27 am

  5. Hi Talknic,

    found this, (including a pdf-scan of the Epstein Letter):

    A little correction regarding the reply of the Provisional Government of Israel (S/766):
    You put the answer in quotes which is not correct, because all questions and answers are part of Israel’s reply. You can find the UN’s original question at the top of the site. As you can see, it has been modified in Israels reply. That’s the reason, why the question also has no “?” and you won’t find “Answer to Question (a)”.

    Comment by Michael — March 31, 2011 @ 6:47 pm

    • Hi Michael,

      Yes it’s rather odd. I’ve made a change accordingly.


      Comment by talknic — April 2, 2011 @ 3:57 pm

      • Long time no see Talknic. (First of all sorry for my english, ‘m not a native speaker)

        Regarding my comment. Have you ever realized that the Security Council was not adressing its questions at Israel or its provisional Goverment, but only at “The Jewish Authorities in Palestine”? It was Israel that twisted the answer and expanding it beyond the original, claiming that it was a state as approved blablabla.

        Doesn’t that indicate that the SC did not recognize Israel teven to be a state and that it hat a provisional Goverment. at that time? ;)

        What could be the reasons?

        I can tell you it’s not because the proclamation clearly violated UNGAR 181: “3. Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth in part III of this plan, shall come into existence in Palestine ***two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory*** Power has been completed but in any case not later than 1 October 1948. The boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem shall be as described in parts II and III below.”

        Now, to proclaim the state on 15 May 1948 according the plan, it means that the evacuation ended on 15 March 1948. But it didn’t.

        The Evacuation ended on 30 Jun 1948;
        “In the early hours of the 30 June 1948, elements from the 4/7 Dragoon Guards, 1 Bn. Coldstream Guards and 1 Bn. Grenadier Guards withdrew from Haifa, leaving 40 Commando Royal Marines as the rearguard. They were embarked on H.M.S. Striker by 10.00 hours, and then Lieutenant General MacMILLAN gave the order, H.M.S. Striker cast off and the British Forces presence in Palestine was over.”

        So the earliest date to proclaim is the same “no later than 1. October 1948” .

        But THAT is not the real reason!

        The partition plan:
        “(b) The Security Council consider, if circumstances during the transitional period require such consideration, whether the situation in Palestine constitutes a threat to the peace. If it decides that such a threat exists, and in order to maintain international peace and security, the Security Council should supplement the authorization of the General Assembly by taking measures, under Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter, to empower the United Nations Commission, as provided in this resolution, to exercise in Palestine the functions which are assigned to it by this resolution;”

        “A temporary United Nations trusteeship for Palestine has been proposed by the United States, instead of proceeding with the United Nations decision in favour of partition.”

        Sec Res 44:
        “Requests the Secretary-General, in accordance with Article 20 of the United Nations Charter, to convoke a special session of the General Assembly to consider further the question of the future government of Palestine”

        Sec Res 46 (the partiton plan freezer resolution)
        1. Calls upon all persons and organizations in Palestine, and especially upon the Arab Higher Committee and the Jewish Agency, to take immediately, without prejudice to their rights, claims, or positions, and as a contribution to the well-being and permanent interests of Palestine, the following measures:
        (a) Cease all activities of a military or paramilitary nature, as well as acts of violence, terrorism and sabotage;
        (b) Refrain from bringing and from assisting and encouraging the entry into Palestine of armed bands and fighting personnel, groups and individuals, whatever their origin;
        (c) Refrain from importing or acquiring or assisting or encouraging the importation or acquisition of weapons and war materials;
        (d) Refrain, pending further consideration of the future Government of Palestine by the General Assembly, from any political activity which might prejudice the rights, claims, or position of either community;
        (e) Co-operate with the Mandatory authorities for the effective maintenance of law and order and of essential services, particularly those relating to transportation, communications, health, and food and water supplies;
        (f) Refrain from any action which will endanger the safety of the Holy Places in Palestine and from any action which would interfere with access to all shrines and sanctuaries for the purpose of worship by those who have an established right to visit and worship at them;

        3. Calls upon all Governments, and particularly those of the countries neighbouring Palestine, to take all possible steps to assist in the implementation of the measures set out under paragraph 1 above, and particularly those referring to the entry into Palestine of armed bands and fighting personnel, groups and individuals, and weapons and war materials

        > (d) NO PROCLAMATION ALLOWED! pending further considerations
        > (3) Calls surrounding countries to assist implementing measures in 1

        Read what happened April to may here and how the Jewish Agency rejected truce proposed by US (and following)

        From the book, US-diplomat:
        The Jewish Agency refusal exposes its aim to ***set up its separate state by force of arms*** — the military action after May 15 will be conducted by the Haganah with the help of the terrorist organizations, the Irgun and LEHI, [and] the UN will face a distorted situation.
        The Jews will be the real aggressors against the Arabs, but will claim that they are only defending the borders of the state, decided upon … by the General Assembly.”

        UNGAR 186 14 May 1948
        1. Empowers a United Nations Mediator in Palestine, to be chosen by a committee of the General Assembly composed of representatives of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, to exercise the following functions:

        Than suddenly Israel proclaims state 1 minute after mandate termination and 11 minute later the Truman-show starts: (and following page)

        26 May 1948
        … On May 14, the Zionists proclaimed their State without any attention to the Security Council’s resolution of April 17. The resolution was observed by the Arabs of Palestine and the Arab States by not proclaiming their Palestine State. In that situation, and in view of the continuous terrorist activities, the Arab States had no alterative but to take coordinated action to preserve the Arabs of Palestine including repatriation of the quarter million displaced Arabs as well as to restore peace and order.

        Now, and after the Jews had taken the utmost advantage to change the political and military status before May 15 in utter disregard of the Security Council’s resolution of April 17, the Arab States are now asked to stop their measures to protect themselves and restore peace and order. All the Arab people are anxious to see peace restored to Palestine and they like nothing better than to abide by the requests of the Security Council. …

        In conclusion, I am directed to state in the name of all the Arab States that those States being anxious to restore peace to Palestine and willing to cooperate with the Security Council for such an endeavour, are of the opinion that the resolution of the Council of April 17 should be observed in order that the cease-fire should not be a lull working for more bitter fighting. The cease-fire at the present does not guarantee neither to the Arabs of Palestine nor to the neighbouring Arab States the safety they are seeking. And yet, and being anxious to realize the purpose of the efforts of the Security Council, namely, the arrival at a just solution and a lasting peace, I am authorized to inform you that the political committee of the Arab League is ready to study within a time limit of 48 hours any suggestion which the Security Council may make to them along the line of a solution of the Palestine problem.”

        3. In paragraph I of your letter it is stated that my suggestions “appear to ignore the resolution of the General Assembly of November 29, 1947…” I cannot accept this statement. As United Nations Mediator, it is true that I have not considered myself bound by the provisions of the 29 November resolution, since had I done so there would have been no meaning to my mediation. The failure to implement the resolution of 29 November 1947, and the open hostilities to which the Arab opposition to it led, resulted in the convoking of the second special session of the General Assembly to “consider further the future government of Palestine”. This special Assembly, taking into account the new situation, adopted, on 14 May 1948, the resolution providing for a Mediator. It is equally true, however, that the basic objectives of the resolution of 29 November 1947, as regards a separate political and institutional existence for the Jewish and Arab communities of Palestine and for close economic ties between these communities, are maintained in my suggestions, although in a somewhat different framework.

        2. I do not consider it to be within my province to recommend to the Members of the United Nations a proposed course of action on the Palestine question. That is a responsibility of the Members acting through the appropriate organs. In my role as United Nations Mediator, however, it was inevitable that I should accumulate information and draw conclusions from my experience which might well be of assistance to Members of the United Nations in charting the future course of United Nations action on Palestine.

        The Arabs repeat their contention that the only solution for the problem is a single sovereign state in which Arabs and Jews live together.
        The Israeli Government condemns the report specifically because of Count Bernadotte’s proposal that the Negev — desert area in the south — should be given to the Arabs. ,,,

        The whole thing wasn’t as fixed as it seems

        Feel free to e-mail me. You may know me, if you read my e-mail adress. ;)

        Comment by Michael — June 1, 2015 @ 12:43 am

  6. Very nice, but the 1948 borders were negated by the Arab refusal to recognize them and in fact the Arab refusal to even recognize the state of Israel.
    Then it became double negated by the Arab war of attempted genocide of which they thankfully lost.

    Comment by R Day — February 24, 2011 @ 10:04 pm

    • Hi R Day

      “the 1948 borders were negated by the Arab refusal to recognize them”

      Odd isn’t it that the Israeli Government confirmed the extent of it’s sovereignty to the International Community of Nations/States on May 15th 1948 in it’s announcement of the Declaration and again to the UNSC on May 22nd 1948 and again on June the 22nd to the UNSC. Again on 31st Aug 1949 by claiming territories OUTSIDE of Israel, AFTER being recognized by the majority of the International Community of Nations/States based on the information supplied by the Israeli Government on the 15th May 1948 and AFTER being accepted into the UN based on that recognition.

      Read the links provided in the article. Try to dispute them.

      UNGA Res 181 was non-binding. There was no legal requirement for either party to recognize, accept, adhere to or otherwise acknowledge the resolution or anything it contained unless the party declared Independent Sovereignty over the recommended boundaries.

      Nor was there an article within UNGA Res 181 requiring the parties to co-sign or acknowledge the declaration of the other in order for it to be recognized as an Independent Sovereign or accepted into the UN. The deal was: accept the recommendations or don’t accept the recommendations.

      Israel did. Proof….It exists as an Independent Sovereign State and a UN Member State. The extent of sovereignty is delineated by BORDERS.


      “the Arab refusal to even recognize the state of Israel”

      There is no legal obligation for ANY entity to recognize any other entity. The UN has Member states who do not recognize each other. They are never the less legitimate UN Member States, with recognized borders. They sometimes have disputes over borders, but not because they have no defined borders. Their disputes arise because they claim their borders HAVE BEEN delineated. The dispute is usually over exactly where the borders is.

      “Then it became double negated by the Arab war…”

      The preemptive Plan Dalet was already under way in the weeks before Israeli declaration, escalating the civil war in Palestine. By the 14th May 1948 Jewish forces were already in control of territories OUTSIDE of those slated for and eventually accepted on behalf of the Jewish State of Israel.

      On the 15th May 1948 “at one minute after six o’clock on the evening of 14 May 1948, Washington time”, the civil war became a war waged by the State of Israel on what remained of Palestine after Israel was declared independent of Palestine.

      Once the extent of Israeli Sovereignty was declared, the Arab states had a legal right to attempt to expel foreign forces from what remained of the territory of Palestine. On the 15th May 1948, the Arab States Declaration on the Invasion of Palestine was submitted to and accepted by the UNSC as a valid legal argument for invading what remained of Palestine after Israel was declared independent of Palestine.

      There is no UNSC condemnation of the Arab States declaration on the Invasion of Palestine. Nor is there any UNSC condemnation for them attacking forces already OUTSIDE of Israel, acting on behalf of the State of Israel .

      “… of attempted genocide…”

      The Arab Declaration on the Invasion of Palestine, contradicts the notion that the Arab League was bent on a genocidal attack, threatening to drive all Jews into the sea. They objected to partition, based on legal grounds. Their Declaration on the Invasion of Palestine says: “The Governments of the Arab States emphasise, on this occasion, what they have already declared before the London Conference and the United Nations, that the only solution of the Palestine problem is the establishment of a unitary Palestinian State, in accordance with democratic principles, whereby its inhabitants will enjoy complete equality before the law, [and whereby] minorities will be assured of all the guarantees recognised in democratic constitutional countries, and [whereby] the holy places will be preserved and the right of access thereto guaranteed”.

      Democracy!! Equal rights!! How dare they! Reflecting almost exactly the Balfour Declaration and the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine, neither of which said anything about a Jewish ‘State’.

      Nowhere did the Declaration on the Invasion of Palestine threaten Israel or Jews. It merely stated the legal case per the League of Nations and the UN Charters, as a basis for protecting their ward as Regional Powers according to the UN Charter Chapter XI.

      The Arab States have never made any official objection to partition based on ethnicity or religion. The basis of their objections has been based on the LoN Charter, the UN Charter, the Law, Conventions.

      “…of which they thankfully lost”

      How strange. Between 1948 and 1950 they prevented Israel from taking
      A) what became the West Bank, which was then LEGALLY annexed by TransJordan as a temporary Trustee in accordance with the UN Charter Chapter XI and NOT condemned by the UNSC
      B) the Gaza Strip. Occupied by Egypt, in accordance with the UN Charter Chapter XI. Also NOT condemned by the UNSC

      Neither were required by UNSC Resolution to withdraw from these territories after the 1948/50 war. They had a RIGHT to occupy under the UN Charter Chapt XI, as the representatives of what remained of Palestine after Israel had declared itself independent of Palestine.

      Comment by talknic — February 25, 2011 @ 2:03 am

    • they have fought 5 times since 1948 to destroy little Israel and one would think maybe they should quit trying.but their hatred is right out of the Bible.the arabs are doomed.for all the Jew haters hide and watch what God does to defend His people

      Comment by jerry sweet — June 17, 2012 @ 4:03 pm

      • When Israelis have never quitted during 4000 years so how do you expect Palestinians, the real owner of this land, who are living for more than the birth of Judaism, start to quit the land. Do not live in fool’s paradise. Why the chosen people were displaced for thousands of years?

        Comment by Anonymous — February 27, 2018 @ 12:49 am

      • Dream on. Israel: 70 years of trying to pound a square peg into a round hole. Palestinians, along with their ancestors, have lived continuously between the River and the Sea for about 15,000 years. They have known many occupiers. the Zionist occupation will be one of the shortest.

        Israel is rotting within and increasingly being abandoned by Jews around the world, especially youth.

        To wit:

        Newsweek, May 10/18
        “More Israelis are moving to the U.S.—and staying for good”
        “Spurred by the high cost of living, low salaries, and political and demographic trends, Israelis are leaving the country in droves.” By Yardena Schwartz

        “Israel celebrates its 70th birthday in May with the opening of the U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem. Yet the country is grappling with an existential crisis—one that doesn’t involve Iranian nukes or Palestinian protests. Spurred by the high cost of living, low salaries, and political and demographic trends, Israelis are leaving the country in droves, trying to build their lives elsewhere, mostly in the United States. Many of these young Israelis are moving to big cities, and yet, even in these often expensive places, they see more opportunities to advance.”

        “The available data is telling, analysts say. Between 2006 and 2016, more than 87,000 Israelis became U.S. citizens or legalized permanent residents, according to the most recent data from the U.S. Department NEWSWEEK of Homeland Security. That’s up from 66,000 between 1995 and 2005. These figures take into account only those who took the legal route (many Israelis, analysts say, arrive on temporary tourist, student or work visas, then stay). And in addition to the Israelis now living stateside, according to the country’s Ministry of Immigrant Absorption, hundreds of thousands have moved to Europe, Canada and elsewhere.

        “The country’s brain drain isn’t new. For years, many of its most talented scholars and researchers moved to the U.S., where the salaries are far higher and there are more jobs at top-tier universities. One report by Dan Ben-David, an economist at Tel Aviv University, found that the emigration rate of Israeli researchers was the highest in the Western world. Recently, however, the exodus has expanded to include average young people, many of whom say there’s simply no future in Israel.

        “Though this embattled country has become known as the ‘Startup Nation’ —it has more early-stage tech companies per capita than any other country—the average Israeli has little connection to that prosperous field. According to government data, 8 percent of Israelis work in high-tech, which pays up to seven times the national average salary of $2,765 a month (before taxes). Israel has one of the highest poverty rates and levels of income inequality in the Western world. Meanwhile, it also has one of the highest costs of living. Tel Aviv ranks ninth among the world’s most expensive cities, higher than New York and Los Angeles; five years ago, it ranked 34th. The situation is so dire that a 2013 survey by the financial newspaper Calcalist (the most recent Israeli study conducted on this topic) found that 87 percent of adults—many with children of their own—depend on substantial financial support from their parents.”

        The Forward, June 21/17: “Support for Israel on Campus Drops by ‘Devastating’ 27%: Study”
        “The Brand Israel Group [BIG], a coalition of volunteer advertising and marketing specialists, has released a survey that shows a significant decrease in Israel’s approval rating among Americans.
        “’The future of America no longer believe that Israel shares their values. This is huge! Devastating,’ Fern Oppenheim, a co-founder of BIG, told The Times of Israel. While approval of Israel among American college students dropped 27% between the group’s 2010 and 2016 surveys, Israel’s approval rating among all Americans dropped 14 points, from 76% to 62%.”

        Furthermore, regarding the USA: national/376097/study-israel- losing-support-among- democrats-minorities- millennials/ The Forward July 2, 2017
        ”Study: Israel Losing Support Among Democrats, Minorities, Millennials ‘It appears that the more Americans learn about Israel, the less they like it.’”
        Support for Israel among American Jewish college students and young American Jews in general is in decline:

        Times of Israel, June 21/17: -news/.premium-jewish-agency- chief-warns-young-u-s-jews- more-turned-off-to-israel-1. 5751616

        Haaretz – Jan 22, 2018, by Judy Maltz
        “Young American Jews Increasingly Turning Away From Israel, Jewish Agency Leader Warns”
        “The Jewish Agency’s CEO and director-general called the trend ‘extremely worrisome,’ and said that a new strategy must be undertaken to engage young American Jews with Israel.”'%20style='color:#000;

        The Real News, Jan. 25/18
        “US Bipartisan Support for Israel over Palestinians Is Breaking Down, New Study Shows”
        “The bipartisan consensus of support for Israel over the Palestinians is breaking down in the United States.
        “Why Young Jews and Democrats Are Waving Goodbye to AIPAC”
        “My generation has only known Israel as an occupier. We won’t back anyone who supports that injustice – including the powerful lobby that is AIPAC”
        By Emily Mayer, March 6, 2018 – Haaretz
        World Bulletin, July 27/18
        “Support for Palestine growing among Jews”
        “Dozens of international Jewish organizations last week issued a joint declaration rejecting the assertion that criticism of Israeli state policy as ‘racist’ — or any criticism of Israel for that matter — was tantamount to ‘anti-Semitism’.
        “In its declaration, the International Jewish Voice (IJV) slammed the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)’s definition of the phrase, which equates any criticism of Israel with anti-Semitism.”,7340,L-3388445,00.html
        “Shoah survivors forced back to Germany due to Israel’s lack of restitution laws”
        Ines Ehrlich Published: 04.16.07, 11:32 / Israel News
        “Documentary shows Israel the worst place for Holocaust survivors to live throughout Western world. Hundreds protest outside Knesset, demand government help survivors with financial difficulties
        “Holocaust survivors have left Israel to live out the rest of their days in Germany due to the better conditions they receive there, according to a documentary program broadcast Tuesday night by Israel’s Channel 2 television.”
        “More Israelis Left Israel Than Moved Back in Six Year Record. 16,700 left and 8,500 came back in 2015, in first year since 2009 that more Israelis exited than returned.” By Lior Dattel. Aug 15, 2017, Haaretz.

        Comment by David — August 25, 2018 @ 6:42 pm

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